Categories
Environmental Science

What are the five parts of the world’s climate system? List the five principal c

What are the five parts of the world’s climate system?
List the five principal climate groups of the Koppen Classification system.
List three human activities that have been blamed for impacting the global climate as described in the Chapter 20 voice-over presentation?
Other than carbon dioxide(CO2) and water vapor (H2O), what are two trace gases that are thought to increase the greenhouse effect and thus global temperatures?
What are aerosols and what is the overall effect that aerosols appear to have on global temperatures, according to our textbook and Chapter 20 voice-over presentation?

Categories
Environmental Science

What are the five parts of the world’s climate system? List the five principal c

What are the five parts of the world’s climate system?
List the five principal climate groups of the Koppen Classification system.
List three human activities that have been blamed for impacting the global climate as described in the Chapter 20 voice-over presentation?
Other than carbon dioxide(CO2) and water vapor (H2O), what are two trace gases that are thought to increase the greenhouse effect and thus global temperatures?
What are aerosols and what is the overall effect that aerosols appear to have on global temperatures, according to our textbook and Chapter 20 voice-over presentation?

Categories
Environmental Science

Refer back to the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) report Se

Refer back to the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) report Section 8.5 Emergency Planning (for West, TX incident). Identify and discuss how planning and better communication might have mitigated risk. This is an open discussion so feel free to comment on anything in the excerpt from this report that caught your attention. Also please reply to the following comment:
The explosion at West Fertilizer Company in Texas nearly a decade ago claimed the lives of 12 emergency responders. The impact from the detonation injured over 260 public civilians and caused significant damage to surrounding structures, forcing the company to file for bankruptcy shortly after.
The CSB reported technical mishaps as the likely cause of the explosion; more specifically, the incident was attributed to a failure to conduct safety inspections, ineffective emergency response, poor pre-incident planning, and lack of response training.
The impact of the incident could have been minimized through the establishment of incident command and management systems, hazard response protocols, and training programs designated to enhance situational hazard awareness and knowledge of risk assessment.
Other safe practices that could have reduced the risks involved in West Fertilizer Company operations include safe storage of combustible materials, installation of proper fire detection devices, substitution of hazardous materials when possible, modifying design processes to ensure maximum safety, and simplifying techniques to reduce risk of hazard associated with equipment failure/malfunction.

Categories
Environmental Science

Refer back to the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) report Se

Refer back to the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) report Section 8.5 Emergency Planning (for West, TX incident). Identify and discuss how planning and better communication might have mitigated risk. This is an open discussion so feel free to comment on anything in the excerpt from this report that caught your attention. Also please reply to the following comment:
The explosion at West Fertilizer Company in Texas nearly a decade ago claimed the lives of 12 emergency responders. The impact from the detonation injured over 260 public civilians and caused significant damage to surrounding structures, forcing the company to file for bankruptcy shortly after.
The CSB reported technical mishaps as the likely cause of the explosion; more specifically, the incident was attributed to a failure to conduct safety inspections, ineffective emergency response, poor pre-incident planning, and lack of response training.
The impact of the incident could have been minimized through the establishment of incident command and management systems, hazard response protocols, and training programs designated to enhance situational hazard awareness and knowledge of risk assessment.
Other safe practices that could have reduced the risks involved in West Fertilizer Company operations include safe storage of combustible materials, installation of proper fire detection devices, substitution of hazardous materials when possible, modifying design processes to ensure maximum safety, and simplifying techniques to reduce risk of hazard associated with equipment failure/malfunction.

Categories
Environmental Science

Approximately 65 million years ago, about two-thirds of all species on Earth, i

Approximately 65 million years ago, about two-thirds of all species on Earth,
including dinosaurs, became extinct in one of the planet’s largest mass extinction events.
What was the cause of this mass extinction? The leading hypothesis is an asteroid impact.
Investigate and discuss whether an asteroid may have caused this mass extinction.
Write a 5-6 page research paper on whether an astroid may have caused the mass extinction of dinosaurs. The paper should be in MLA format and have a cover page. Also, include in-text citations when necessary. The in-text citations should be in the following format (authors last name, page#, and year of publication). Also, keep quoted material to a minimum. The paper should also have a reference page with at least 6 scholarly sources like journals, books, or magazines. I have provided 4 sources that you must use in the paper, that leaves you to find at least 2 more scholarly sources. Do not use websites as sources for the paper.

Categories
Environmental Science

InstructionsNote: The following scenario contains comprehensive information that

InstructionsNote: The following scenario contains comprehensive information that is provided as the basis for a six-unit project that will be completed in Units II–VII. Information provided here will be used in all sections of this project, though not all information may be needed for all sections.ScenarioYou have just been hired as the senior environmental manager for a large corporate agricultural complex in the midwestern part of the United States, and you will be responsible for keeping your organization in regulatory compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and your state’s department of environmental quality (DEQ).
You quickly realize that your company has several active effluent permits (one for combined stormwater/wastewater and one for solid waste hauled off-site) but no pollution prevention plan (P3). After visiting with the company’s executive team, you learn that they have never been alerted of the need for a P3, and they want you to fully explain to them why the organization needs one.
They have asked you to be as comprehensive as possible so that you can ultimately present this to the board of directors for approval. As such, you have decided to conduct a P3 Pre-Assessment Study to study and document the entire situation, knowing that this will help you learn the organization’s complete situation, even while being able to adequately convey it to the board of directors.
Your organization, ABC Agriculture Production, Inc., has the following general operational characteristics:
It is situated on 640 acres (one section) of land in southwestern Nebraska.
Adjacent to the 640 acres (to the west) is a private rancher’s property sustaining a commercially leased and producing natural gas well.
Adjacent to the 640 acres (to the east) is a small, actively running salt-fork of a major river (Platte River).
Confined animal feed operations (CAFO) barns and production offices cover approximately 160 acres, with separate, large, full barns for swine, chicken, and beef cattle operations, one feed mill, and six barn-discharge wastewater lagoons.
Corn and alfalfa hay fields span 320 acres, with groundwater irrigation wells supplying several large center-pivot irrigation sprinkler systems for both crops.
Gypsum (CaSO4-2H2O, or calcium sulfate dihydrate) and caliche (CaCO3, or calcium carbonate) open pit excavation mines are located on the remaining 160 acres, and the products are mined and sold by the truckload.
Crops are routinely fertilized with commercial nitrogen fertilizers, weeds are controlled with commercial herbicides, and pests are controlled with commercial pesticides.
Animals are routinely vaccinated (injection) and supplemented with vitamins and antibiotics (in both feed and water).
Deceased animals’ carcasses are disposed of in a pit and covered with hydrated lime (Ca[OH]2, or calcium hydroxide) daily, with weekly pit coverage for a complete carcass burial.
There is an EPA-registered National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit active with active outfalls for the CAFO wastewater lagoons and crop fields, operationalized as a combined stormwater/wastewater effluent permit. Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) includes limits for the following:
ParameterLimit
DO> 11.0 mg/L (ppm)
BOD150 ppm
COD150 ppm
TSS100 ppm
TDS100 ppm
TKN500 ppm
ammonia (NH3)300 ppm
fecal coliformnon-detect (ND) (via EPA method 1681)
glyphosate (herbicide)ND
atrazine (herbicide)ND
chlorpyrifos (pesticide)ND
malathion (pesticide)ND
Phosphorous (P)2.5 ppm
Potassium (K)1.5 ppm
Calcium (Ca)2.0 ppm
Magnesium (Mg)0.5 ppm
pH6.5 – 8.5
pharmaceutical scan0.0001 ppm (via EPA method 1694)
temperature± 10% ambient water temperatures
oil and grease15 ppm (via EPA method 1664)
turbidity< 10 %
flow< 5,000 gallons per day (gpd)
There is a hazardous waste permit for disposing of all discarded pesticide, herbicide, and pharmaceutical wastes.
Wind speeds average 12 mph, and rainfall averages 21 inches/year.
High/Low temps range from winter (40°F/14°F) to summer (91°F/63°F).
Average humidity is 65.8% with an average dew point of 37.9°F.
AssignmentBeginning with this unit (Unit II) and continuing through Unit VII, you will develop a single document as your P3 Pre-Assessment Study. You will construct one section of this document per unit, submitting the completed work as a mini-project for every unit. By the end of Unit VII, you will have completed a single document that is six sections long containing all six mini-projects that also includes a title page, abstract page, and references page.
For each unit, you will make corrections to the previous unit’s work, and then publish the new section on the same document. You will format this document as an APA-Style research paper (example paper using 7th edition APA Style is linked below). For your convenience, a specific template has been provided for you to use for this project.
Download the class project template .
Provide your name on the title page.
Under the first body page’s level 1 heading on p. 3, titled General Operational Characteristics, summarize and paraphrase the scenario’s operational characteristics (items A–N above). Include a presentation of the TMDL information from the NPDES permit.
Under the second level 1 heading titled Potential Ecological Health Impacts, carefully consider then summarize all potential sources of ecological pollutants and their subsequent potential impacts derived from potential physical, chemical, and microbial contaminants within the operational effluents. Be sure to cite in APA Style as you write, using the CSU Citation Guide as your APA citations style guide.
Under the Abstract heading on p. 2 of the document, write a maximum of two sentences that reflect what you have addressed in the document for this particular unit (you will be adding to the abstract with a single sentence in all subsequent related unit assignments). Be sure to keep the abstract blocked (not indented) and double-spaced.
Under the References heading on the last page, update your references to include the source references that you used to inform your work in this section of your project. Be sure to use the CSU Citation Guide as your APA references style guide. It also provides guidance that will help you with APA-Style formatting.
Leave the rest of the template blank for this unit. You will complete each subsequent section (under each of the remaining level 1 headings) during each subsequent unit’s assignment.
You must use at least your textbook and at least one additional scholarly source (either a book or a scholarly journal article from the CSU Online Library databases) for each section of this document. Each of your sections’ content must be at least one full page in length, in Times New Roman 12-pt. font, double-spaced, with 1” margins.

Categories
Environmental Science

InstructionsNote: The following scenario contains comprehensive information that

InstructionsNote: The following scenario contains comprehensive information that is provided as the basis for a six-unit project that will be completed in Units II–VII. Information provided here will be used in all sections of this project, though not all information may be needed for all sections.ScenarioYou have just been hired as the senior environmental manager for a large corporate agricultural complex in the midwestern part of the United States, and you will be responsible for keeping your organization in regulatory compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and your state’s department of environmental quality (DEQ).
You quickly realize that your company has several active effluent permits (one for combined stormwater/wastewater and one for solid waste hauled off-site) but no pollution prevention plan (P3). After visiting with the company’s executive team, you learn that they have never been alerted of the need for a P3, and they want you to fully explain to them why the organization needs one.
They have asked you to be as comprehensive as possible so that you can ultimately present this to the board of directors for approval. As such, you have decided to conduct a P3 Pre-Assessment Study to study and document the entire situation, knowing that this will help you learn the organization’s complete situation, even while being able to adequately convey it to the board of directors.
Your organization, ABC Agriculture Production, Inc., has the following general operational characteristics:
It is situated on 640 acres (one section) of land in southwestern Nebraska.
Adjacent to the 640 acres (to the west) is a private rancher’s property sustaining a commercially leased and producing natural gas well.
Adjacent to the 640 acres (to the east) is a small, actively running salt-fork of a major river (Platte River).
Confined animal feed operations (CAFO) barns and production offices cover approximately 160 acres, with separate, large, full barns for swine, chicken, and beef cattle operations, one feed mill, and six barn-discharge wastewater lagoons.
Corn and alfalfa hay fields span 320 acres, with groundwater irrigation wells supplying several large center-pivot irrigation sprinkler systems for both crops.
Gypsum (CaSO4-2H2O, or calcium sulfate dihydrate) and caliche (CaCO3, or calcium carbonate) open pit excavation mines are located on the remaining 160 acres, and the products are mined and sold by the truckload.
Crops are routinely fertilized with commercial nitrogen fertilizers, weeds are controlled with commercial herbicides, and pests are controlled with commercial pesticides.
Animals are routinely vaccinated (injection) and supplemented with vitamins and antibiotics (in both feed and water).
Deceased animals’ carcasses are disposed of in a pit and covered with hydrated lime (Ca[OH]2, or calcium hydroxide) daily, with weekly pit coverage for a complete carcass burial.
There is an EPA-registered National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit active with active outfalls for the CAFO wastewater lagoons and crop fields, operationalized as a combined stormwater/wastewater effluent permit. Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) includes limits for the following:
ParameterLimit
DO> 11.0 mg/L (ppm)
BOD150 ppm
COD150 ppm
TSS100 ppm
TDS100 ppm
TKN500 ppm
ammonia (NH3)300 ppm
fecal coliformnon-detect (ND) (via EPA method 1681)
glyphosate (herbicide)ND
atrazine (herbicide)ND
chlorpyrifos (pesticide)ND
malathion (pesticide)ND
Phosphorous (P)2.5 ppm
Potassium (K)1.5 ppm
Calcium (Ca)2.0 ppm
Magnesium (Mg)0.5 ppm
pH6.5 – 8.5
pharmaceutical scan0.0001 ppm (via EPA method 1694)
temperature± 10% ambient water temperatures
oil and grease15 ppm (via EPA method 1664)
turbidity< 10 %
flow< 5,000 gallons per day (gpd)
There is a hazardous waste permit for disposing of all discarded pesticide, herbicide, and pharmaceutical wastes.
Wind speeds average 12 mph, and rainfall averages 21 inches/year.
High/Low temps range from winter (40°F/14°F) to summer (91°F/63°F).
Average humidity is 65.8% with an average dew point of 37.9°F.
AssignmentBeginning with this unit (Unit II) and continuing through Unit VII, you will develop a single document as your P3 Pre-Assessment Study. You will construct one section of this document per unit, submitting the completed work as a mini-project for every unit. By the end of Unit VII, you will have completed a single document that is six sections long containing all six mini-projects that also includes a title page, abstract page, and references page.
For each unit, you will make corrections to the previous unit’s work, and then draft the new section on the same document. You will format this document as an APA-Style research paper (example paper using 7th edition APA Style is linked below). For your convenience, a specific template has been provided for you to use for this project.
Download the class project template .
Provide your name on the title page.
Under the first body page’s level 1 heading on p. 3, titled General Operational Characteristics, summarize and paraphrase the scenario’s operational characteristics (items A–N above). Include a presentation of the TMDL information from the NPDES permit.
Under the second level 1 heading titled Potential Ecological Health Impacts, carefully consider then summarize all potential sources of ecological pollutants and their subsequent potential impacts derived from potential physical, chemical, and microbial contaminants within the operational effluents. Be sure to cite in APA Style as you write, using the CSU Citation Guide as your APA citations style guide.
Under the Abstract heading on p. 2 of the document, write a maximum of two sentences that reflect what you have addressed in the document for this particular unit (you will be adding to the abstract with a single sentence in all subsequent related unit assignments). Be sure to keep the abstract blocked (not indented) and double-spaced.
Under the References heading on the last page, update your references to include the source references that you used to inform your work in this section of your project. Be sure to use the CSU Citation Guide as your APA references style guide. It also provides guidance that will help you with APA-Style formatting.
Leave the rest of the template blank for this unit. You will complete each subsequent section (under each of the remaining level 1 headings) during each subsequent unit’s assignment.
You must use at least your textbook and at least one additional scholarly source (either a book or a scholarly journal article from the CSU Online Library databases) for each section of this document. Each of your sections’ content must be at least one full page in length, in Times New Roman 12-pt. font, double-spaced, with 1” margins.

Categories
Environmental Science

Approximately 65 million years ago, about two-thirds of all species on Earth, i

Approximately 65 million years ago, about two-thirds of all species on Earth,
including dinosaurs, became extinct in one of the planet’s largest mass extinction events.
What was the cause of this mass extinction? The leading hypothesis is an asteroid impact.
Investigate and discuss whether an asteroid may have caused this mass extinction.
Write a 5-6 page research paper on whether an astroid may have caused the mass extinction of dinosaurs. The paper should be in MLA format and have a cover page. Also, include in-text citations when necessary. The in-text citations should be in the following format (authors last name, page#, and year of publication). Also, keep quoted material to a minimum. The paper should also have a reference page with at least 6 scholarly sources like journals, books, or magazines. I have provided 4 sources that you must use in the paper, that leaves you to find at least 2 more scholarly sources. Do not use websites as sources for the paper.

Categories
Environmental Science

En-ROADS Assignment: Simulating Climate Futures En-ROADS Climate Change Simulat

En-ROADS Assignment: Simulating Climate Futures
En-ROADS Climate Change Simulation Report
For this project, you will work with the En-ROADS simulation model developed by Climate Interactive and MIT Sloan Sustainability Initiative to create a scenario that can mitigate global warming to the internationally agreed target of less than 2°C. In addition, you will consider the economic, political, and social issues relevant to successful implementation of your policies. You will work on your scenario in your group in class on Thursday, November 10th. Depending on how far your group gets with your scenario, you may also need to meet to work on it outside of class. The mini-report that your group will submit will be based on the scenario that your group develops, and the instructions for the report are detailed below.
Your Steps
By the start of class on 11.10.2022 – Complete the class materials. Makesure that you have:
oWatched the introduction video
oOpened and explored En-ROADS at en-roads.climateinteractive.org/ oRead the information sheets
Develop a scenario to meet your goals. Use En-ROADS to develop your vision of how to successfully limit global warming to less than 2°C per the Paris Agreement. Ensure your scenario factors in the goals listed below. You will begin your work on this as a group in class on Thursday, November 10th.
Submit a writeup expressing your vision. After developing your preferred scenario, write a thoughtful and concise response to the questions below. Develop your vision and approach on the issues. Instructions on how to format your writeup are at the end of this document. Your report is due December 4th.
Your Goals
Your mission is to recommend a set of global policies, investments, and actions that meet these five goals as much as possible:
1. Limit global warming. Global warming above 2°C will cause dangerous and irreversible impacts that will harm our prosperity, security, health, and lives. Limiting warming to less than 2°C is not without challenges either (we are already seeing impacts today), however it is a benchmark by which scientists and world leaders believe we can lower the risks to a more manageable level.
Developed by the MIT Sloan Sustainability Initiative and Climate Interactive. Last updated September 2021.
Preserve and create a healthy economy. Your policies should strive to lead a global energy transition that would preserve and create a healthy global economy. You must decide how to balance the short-term costs of climate actions with the long-term costs of damages from climate inaction. Note that financial costs are not explicitly predicted in the model as they are uncertain and controversial. You may offer your own hypotheses on the financial impacts of different decisions.While assessing the economics, also consider the potential to offset short-term costs with additional co-benefits e.g., benefits to the economy, public health, national security and other areas which could provide benefits on top of the direct benefits of mitigating global warming.
Promote equity and a just transition. Consider the impacts of your policies for both high-income and low-income nations, and between the rich and poor people within nations. Consider whether your policies will disproportionately harm certain groups and how to mitigate such harms (e.g., if you favor policies that would reduce or shut down fossil fuel use, how will your policies address the resulting unemployment of people employed by the fossil fuel industry?). Also consider how opportunities for the new green economy can be shared more equitably and not leave marginalized groups behind.
Protect the environment. Many environmental challenges besides climate change threaten human welfare—e.g., water shortage, air and water pollution (smog, particulates), soil loss, plastic pollution, anoxic zones (dead zones) in rivers and oceans, extinction of species, etc. Your proposals should minimize other harmful effects on the environment.
Be realistic but not cynical. Imagine a scenario of what could be possible if human civilization operates at its best.
Your Tool: En-ROADS
You will be testing your recommendations using the En-ROADS simulation model. En- ROADS is an interactive tool for simulating the long-term impacts of policy actions on global warming. This includes policies affecting energy supply, energy efficiency, carbon emissions prices, land use, and other factors that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. En-ROADS is grounded in the best available science about climate impacts; solutions; and the complex interactions of the climate, energy, land, population and economic systems.
Please note: En-ROADS is a global model, which means that the policy levers simulate if the action were applied to the whole world. En-ROADS does not attempt to address the complex nuances of how different countries and political groups might respond to each policy.
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More information on En-ROADS is available at: climateinteractive.org/tools/en-roads/ Your Write-up
Write a memo describing your proposals. Please respond to all the questions and organize your writeup into the following sections (a detailed outline is also provided at the end of the directions). There is no minimum or maximum length for your write-up (although extremely short submissions that fail to fully address each section will be penalized). Create a compelling analysis with clear and focused writing. Your first page should be a title page that has your group number and the full names of each group member that contributed to the report. Your second page should be a table of contents.
Please do not just divide each section up as being the responsibility of a single member of your group. While it’s ok for a group member to do the writing for a particular section, your group as a whole should discuss each section and the questions that go with it. If you don’t do this, your sections are unlikely to fit together and you will lose points. The entire group is responsible for the entire submission – failure in a section of the report will reflect in the grades of the entire group. I highly recommend giving someone the job of connector – making sure that all pieces of the report fit together, both visually and conceptually.
This report requires A LOT of thinking. This is not a last minute throw together type of assignment. While it’s possible you may need to look up some topics if you are not knowledgeable enough about them, what’s much more likely is that you will need to devote some time to thinking through the implications of each decision that you made in your model.
Section 1: Plan
1. Policies: Summarize your plan using the template provided at the end of this document. You will share three screenshots of specific graphs that caught your attention and are worth noting. While normally, in academic writing, all graphs, tables and figures would go at the end of the document, since this is a “polished” report, you should include each table/graph/figure at the end of section 1.
Section 2: Meeting the Goals
Climate: How well do you think your proposal does in meeting the Paris climategoals? If it does not meet the goal, why is this acceptable to you?
Economy: If the world followed your recommendations, how would the economy be different at different points in the future e.g., 2030, 2050 and 2100? In what ways would it be better? In what ways would it be worse?
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Equity: How can your proposal strive to increase equity across nations and different peoples?
Environment: To what extent might your proposal mitigate other environmental challenges (e.g., biodiversity, pollution, water and air quality)? To what extent might your proposal cause or worsen other environmental problems?
Realism without cynicism: What would it take for your proposal to be realized? What barriers might arise in the implementation of your proposals, and how might they be addressed? To get started, what actions and priorities are needed as soon as possible from businesses, civil society, governments, or the public?
Winners/Losers: Who would be the biggest winners and losers globally in your proposed future? Create a table with two columns for winners and losers.
Section 3: Individual Reflections
For this section of the submission, there should be a page (pages) for each member of your group. Please start each individual’s answers to questions 8, 9, and 10 on a separate page and label that page with the writer’s name. This section is graded individually, so the group is not penalized if some members do not complete the section (members who do not complete this section will receive 0 points for it).
Surprises from En-ROADS: What surprised you about the behavior of the energy and climate system as captured in the simulation? For example, what actions had a bigger or smaller effect than you thought? Did you discover why that might be?
Feelings: How did your insights from the model and this assignment make you feel? (Feelings as in emotions, not thoughts.)
10.Hope & Personal Action: Do any trends in the world give you hope that your proposals are possible? What can you personally do to help create the necessary changes?
Section 4: References
If your group used any outside sources in the development of your memo/report, you must provide your references in this section. Outside sources are not required, but if they are used (which is highly likely), they must be provided. Not providing them is plagiarism and grades will be penalized accordingly. When in doubt, provide a reference. Including your citations also has the added benefit of increasing the credibility of your work. This section is also where you may include any additional tables/figures/graphs that you feel are important.
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Use this template to present your plan in section 1 of your write-up:
Provide a short, memorable name for your plan
Paste a screenshot of the main En-ROADS interface showing your results
Presentbulletpointssummarizingyourmostimportantpoliciesandoutcomes
Paste the text from Actions & Outcomes to document all the assumptions and policy settings you choose in your scenario. Access the “Actions & Outcomes” feature from the “View” menu.Figure 1: Actions & Outcomes
Paste your URL from the “Copy scenario link” option in the Share Your Scenario feature on the top tool barFigure 2: Copy scenario link
Share screenshots of three specific graphs that caught your attention and are worth noting. For each graph you share, please add a brief note about why.
Illustrative Example
The example below is illustrative only. Note that the policies shown in the example do not reduce expected global warming to below 2 degrees C. Your preferred strategy should attempt to do so. The example below does not include the three graphs – you should choose the three that are most interesting/surprising/important for your scenario and briefly explain why you chose them.
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Grading Rubric
Your submissions will be graded as follows:
Section 1 – 30 points
Must include a name for your plan, a screenshot of the En-ROADS interface, a summary of your plan, the Actions & Outlines from your scenario, your scenario link, and the three selected graphs
Section 2 – 30 points
Must include all six subsections: Climate, Economy, Equity, Environment, Realism without Cynicism, Winners/Losers
Section 3 – 30 points
Must include all 3 sections: Surprises from En-ROADS, Feelings, and Hope & Personal Action
Professionalism – 10 points
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I will be looking for a cohesive report that visually appears to be created by a single person/group. Points will be lost if the format, font, layout, etc. changes across sections. There must be a title page and a table of contents and your report should have page numbers. Your report should be professionally written – first person (using I or we) is appropriate in this setting and should be used where appropriate. Your writing should be business professional – do not use slang, inappropriate language, etc. It should be proofread – too many errors will lead to lost points. I recommend having the best writer in your group have the role of proofreading the entire document. Other than the Section 3, everyone is responsible for everything submitted, regardless of whether or not you individually wrote it.
Please be sure to leave enough time to run your paper through the plagiarism checker. I am allowing unlimited submissions, so if you there is plagiarism in your paper (not including the references themselves, or direct quotes that are properly cited), you must fix it and then resubmit.
Papers with plagiarism will receive 0 points for professionalism AND 0 points for the section that has plagiarism. This means a minimum loss of 40 points.
Group members who do not contribute to the report submission and whose names are not on the title page will receive a 0 for the report – they will not benefit from their group member’s work
Because this is a group submission, every group member is responsible for plagiarism, regardless of who wrote it (except for in Section 3).
Submission Outline
1. TitlePage
Name of your scenario
Groupnumber
Names of each contributing group member (do not include groupmembers that do not contribute)
Table of contentsEach first level section of your report and its page number
Each second level subsection of your report and its page number
You do not need to include any 3rd level sections in your table of contents
Section 1First level headings should be centered, bolded, and in all capital letters –for this section, you’ll start with SECTION 1: PLAN
Second level headings should be left adjusted, bolded, and in title case –for this section, it is The Name of Your Scenario
Under the name of your scenario should be your screenshot of the En-Roads interface with your final scenario settings
Your next subsection is your summary – left adjusted and title case –Summary
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Third subsection – Scenario Policies – this is from the Actions & Outcomes menu option (see image above)
Fourth subsection – Scenario Link
Fifth subsection – GraphsHere, you will have third level headings. For each graph, you will need to provide a title. Third level headings should be left adjusted, italicized, and in title case. For example – Energy Use by Fuel Source
For each graph, provide its title, a screenshot of the graph (crop it so it is just the graph), and then your explanation/description of why you chose that graph
Please make each graph and its description its own separate page
4. Section 2
a. You are back to a first level heading. First level sections should start on a new page, regardless of where you are in the previous page
i. Your first level heading should be centered in the top line of the page, it should be bolded and in all caps – SECTION 2: MEETING THE GOALS
b. Your subsections are left adjusted, bolded, and in title case. Your first subsection is Climate
Do not make third level sections for each question in these subsections. Not all questions may be relevant for your scenario, but you must answer the ones that are
Economy
Equity
Environment
Realism without Cynicism
Winners & Losers
5. Section 3
a. You are back to a first level heading. First level sections should start on a
new page, regardless of where you are in the previous page
i. Your first level heading should be centered in the top line of the
page, it should be bolded and in all caps – SECTION 3:
INDIVIDUAL REFLECTIONS
b. Your subsections are left adjusted, bolded, and in title case. Your
subsections will be each member of your group – Group Member’s Name i. For this section only, you should start each group member
subsection on its own page
c. For each group member, you will have 3 third level sub sections. Third
level sub sections are left justified, italicized, and in title case
Surprises from En-Roads
Feelings
Hope & Personal Action
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6. Section 4
You are back to a first level heading. First level sections should start on anew page, regardless of where you are in the previous pageYour first level heading should be centered in the top line of thepage, it should be bolded and in all caps – SECTION 4:ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
It is possible that you will not have a section 4 if you do not haveany items to include in it
Your subsections are left adjusted, bolded, and in title case. Your firstsubsection is References
i. If you do not have any references, then you will not have this
section
c. Your second subsection is the Appendix
If you have additional graphs, tables, or figures that you would like to include in your submission – besides the 3 that go in Section 1 – then you would include them here
This section is not mandatory and it is possible that you will not have anything to include here

Categories
Environmental Science

En-ROADS Assignment: Simulating Climate Futures En-ROADS Climate Change Simulat

En-ROADS Assignment: Simulating Climate Futures
En-ROADS Climate Change Simulation Report
For this project, you will work with the En-ROADS simulation model developed by Climate Interactive and MIT Sloan Sustainability Initiative to create a scenario that can mitigate global warming to the internationally agreed target of less than 2°C. In addition, you will consider the economic, political, and social issues relevant to successful implementation of your policies. You will work on your scenario in your group in class on Thursday, November 10th. Depending on how far your group gets with your scenario, you may also need to meet to work on it outside of class. The mini-report that your group will submit will be based on the scenario that your group develops, and the instructions for the report are detailed below.
Your Steps
By the start of class on 11.10.2022 – Complete the class materials. Makesure that you have:
oWatched the introduction video
oOpened and explored En-ROADS at en-roads.climateinteractive.org/ oRead the information sheets
Develop a scenario to meet your goals. Use En-ROADS to develop your vision of how to successfully limit global warming to less than 2°C per the Paris Agreement. Ensure your scenario factors in the goals listed below. You will begin your work on this as a group in class on Thursday, November 10th.
Submit a writeup expressing your vision. After developing your preferred scenario, write a thoughtful and concise response to the questions below. Develop your vision and approach on the issues. Instructions on how to format your writeup are at the end of this document. Your report is due December 4th.
Your Goals
Your mission is to recommend a set of global policies, investments, and actions that meet these five goals as much as possible:
1. Limit global warming. Global warming above 2°C will cause dangerous and irreversible impacts that will harm our prosperity, security, health, and lives. Limiting warming to less than 2°C is not without challenges either (we are already seeing impacts today), however it is a benchmark by which scientists and world leaders believe we can lower the risks to a more manageable level.
Developed by the MIT Sloan Sustainability Initiative and Climate Interactive. Last updated September 2021.
Preserve and create a healthy economy. Your policies should strive to lead a global energy transition that would preserve and create a healthy global economy. You must decide how to balance the short-term costs of climate actions with the long-term costs of damages from climate inaction. Note that financial costs are not explicitly predicted in the model as they are uncertain and controversial. You may offer your own hypotheses on the financial impacts of different decisions.While assessing the economics, also consider the potential to offset short-term costs with additional co-benefits e.g., benefits to the economy, public health, national security and other areas which could provide benefits on top of the direct benefits of mitigating global warming.
Promote equity and a just transition. Consider the impacts of your policies for both high-income and low-income nations, and between the rich and poor people within nations. Consider whether your policies will disproportionately harm certain groups and how to mitigate such harms (e.g., if you favor policies that would reduce or shut down fossil fuel use, how will your policies address the resulting unemployment of people employed by the fossil fuel industry?). Also consider how opportunities for the new green economy can be shared more equitably and not leave marginalized groups behind.
Protect the environment. Many environmental challenges besides climate change threaten human welfare—e.g., water shortage, air and water pollution (smog, particulates), soil loss, plastic pollution, anoxic zones (dead zones) in rivers and oceans, extinction of species, etc. Your proposals should minimize other harmful effects on the environment.
Be realistic but not cynical. Imagine a scenario of what could be possible if human civilization operates at its best.
Your Tool: En-ROADS
You will be testing your recommendations using the En-ROADS simulation model. En- ROADS is an interactive tool for simulating the long-term impacts of policy actions on global warming. This includes policies affecting energy supply, energy efficiency, carbon emissions prices, land use, and other factors that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. En-ROADS is grounded in the best available science about climate impacts; solutions; and the complex interactions of the climate, energy, land, population and economic systems.
Please note: En-ROADS is a global model, which means that the policy levers simulate if the action were applied to the whole world. En-ROADS does not attempt to address the complex nuances of how different countries and political groups might respond to each policy.
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More information on En-ROADS is available at: climateinteractive.org/tools/en-roads/ Your Write-up
Write a memo describing your proposals. Please respond to all the questions and organize your writeup into the following sections (a detailed outline is also provided at the end of the directions). There is no minimum or maximum length for your write-up (although extremely short submissions that fail to fully address each section will be penalized). Create a compelling analysis with clear and focused writing. Your first page should be a title page that has your group number and the full names of each group member that contributed to the report. Your second page should be a table of contents.
Please do not just divide each section up as being the responsibility of a single member of your group. While it’s ok for a group member to do the writing for a particular section, your group as a whole should discuss each section and the questions that go with it. If you don’t do this, your sections are unlikely to fit together and you will lose points. The entire group is responsible for the entire submission – failure in a section of the report will reflect in the grades of the entire group. I highly recommend giving someone the job of connector – making sure that all pieces of the report fit together, both visually and conceptually.
This report requires A LOT of thinking. This is not a last minute throw together type of assignment. While it’s possible you may need to look up some topics if you are not knowledgeable enough about them, what’s much more likely is that you will need to devote some time to thinking through the implications of each decision that you made in your model.
Section 1: Plan
1. Policies: Summarize your plan using the template provided at the end of this document. You will share three screenshots of specific graphs that caught your attention and are worth noting. While normally, in academic writing, all graphs, tables and figures would go at the end of the document, since this is a “polished” report, you should include each table/graph/figure at the end of section 1.
Section 2: Meeting the Goals
Climate: How well do you think your proposal does in meeting the Paris climategoals? If it does not meet the goal, why is this acceptable to you?
Economy: If the world followed your recommendations, how would the economy be different at different points in the future e.g., 2030, 2050 and 2100? In what ways would it be better? In what ways would it be worse?
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Equity: How can your proposal strive to increase equity across nations and different peoples?
Environment: To what extent might your proposal mitigate other environmental challenges (e.g., biodiversity, pollution, water and air quality)? To what extent might your proposal cause or worsen other environmental problems?
Realism without cynicism: What would it take for your proposal to be realized? What barriers might arise in the implementation of your proposals, and how might they be addressed? To get started, what actions and priorities are needed as soon as possible from businesses, civil society, governments, or the public?
Winners/Losers: Who would be the biggest winners and losers globally in your proposed future? Create a table with two columns for winners and losers.
Section 3: Individual Reflections
For this section of the submission, there should be a page (pages) for each member of your group. Please start each individual’s answers to questions 8, 9, and 10 on a separate page and label that page with the writer’s name. This section is graded individually, so the group is not penalized if some members do not complete the section (members who do not complete this section will receive 0 points for it).
Surprises from En-ROADS: What surprised you about the behavior of the energy and climate system as captured in the simulation? For example, what actions had a bigger or smaller effect than you thought? Did you discover why that might be?
Feelings: How did your insights from the model and this assignment make you feel? (Feelings as in emotions, not thoughts.)
10.Hope & Personal Action: Do any trends in the world give you hope that your proposals are possible? What can you personally do to help create the necessary changes?
Section 4: References
If your group used any outside sources in the development of your memo/report, you must provide your references in this section. Outside sources are not required, but if they are used (which is highly likely), they must be provided. Not providing them is plagiarism and grades will be penalized accordingly. When in doubt, provide a reference. Including your citations also has the added benefit of increasing the credibility of your work. This section is also where you may include any additional tables/figures/graphs that you feel are important.
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Use this template to present your plan in section 1 of your write-up:
Provide a short, memorable name for your plan
Paste a screenshot of the main En-ROADS interface showing your results
Presentbulletpointssummarizingyourmostimportantpoliciesandoutcomes
Paste the text from Actions & Outcomes to document all the assumptions and policy settings you choose in your scenario. Access the “Actions & Outcomes” feature from the “View” menu.Figure 1: Actions & Outcomes
Paste your URL from the “Copy scenario link” option in the Share Your Scenario feature on the top tool barFigure 2: Copy scenario link
Share screenshots of three specific graphs that caught your attention and are worth noting. For each graph you share, please add a brief note about why.
Illustrative Example
The example below is illustrative only. Note that the policies shown in the example do not reduce expected global warming to below 2 degrees C. Your preferred strategy should attempt to do so. The example below does not include the three graphs – you should choose the three that are most interesting/surprising/important for your scenario and briefly explain why you chose them.
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Grading Rubric
Your submissions will be graded as follows:
Section 1 – 30 points
Must include a name for your plan, a screenshot of the En-ROADS interface, a summary of your plan, the Actions & Outlines from your scenario, your scenario link, and the three selected graphs
Section 2 – 30 points
Must include all six subsections: Climate, Economy, Equity, Environment, Realism without Cynicism, Winners/Losers
Section 3 – 30 points
Must include all 3 sections: Surprises from En-ROADS, Feelings, and Hope & Personal Action
Professionalism – 10 points
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I will be looking for a cohesive report that visually appears to be created by a single person/group. Points will be lost if the format, font, layout, etc. changes across sections. There must be a title page and a table of contents and your report should have page numbers. Your report should be professionally written – first person (using I or we) is appropriate in this setting and should be used where appropriate. Your writing should be business professional – do not use slang, inappropriate language, etc. It should be proofread – too many errors will lead to lost points. I recommend having the best writer in your group have the role of proofreading the entire document. Other than the Section 3, everyone is responsible for everything submitted, regardless of whether or not you individually wrote it.
Please be sure to leave enough time to run your paper through the plagiarism checker. I am allowing unlimited submissions, so if you there is plagiarism in your paper (not including the references themselves, or direct quotes that are properly cited), you must fix it and then resubmit.
Papers with plagiarism will receive 0 points for professionalism AND 0 points for the section that has plagiarism. This means a minimum loss of 40 points.
Group members who do not contribute to the report submission and whose names are not on the title page will receive a 0 for the report – they will not benefit from their group member’s work
Because this is a group submission, every group member is responsible for plagiarism, regardless of who wrote it (except for in Section 3).
Submission Outline
1. TitlePage
Name of your scenario
Groupnumber
Names of each contributing group member (do not include groupmembers that do not contribute)
Table of contentsEach first level section of your report and its page number
Each second level subsection of your report and its page number
You do not need to include any 3rd level sections in your table of contents
Section 1First level headings should be centered, bolded, and in all capital letters –for this section, you’ll start with SECTION 1: PLAN
Second level headings should be left adjusted, bolded, and in title case –for this section, it is The Name of Your Scenario
Under the name of your scenario should be your screenshot of the En-Roads interface with your final scenario settings
Your next subsection is your summary – left adjusted and title case –Summary
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Third subsection – Scenario Policies – this is from the Actions & Outcomes menu option (see image above)
Fourth subsection – Scenario Link
Fifth subsection – GraphsHere, you will have third level headings. For each graph, you will need to provide a title. Third level headings should be left adjusted, italicized, and in title case. For example – Energy Use by Fuel Source
For each graph, provide its title, a screenshot of the graph (crop it so it is just the graph), and then your explanation/description of why you chose that graph
Please make each graph and its description its own separate page
4. Section 2
a. You are back to a first level heading. First level sections should start on a new page, regardless of where you are in the previous page
i. Your first level heading should be centered in the top line of the page, it should be bolded and in all caps – SECTION 2: MEETING THE GOALS
b. Your subsections are left adjusted, bolded, and in title case. Your first subsection is Climate
Do not make third level sections for each question in these subsections. Not all questions may be relevant for your scenario, but you must answer the ones that are
Economy
Equity
Environment
Realism without Cynicism
Winners & Losers
5. Section 3
a. You are back to a first level heading. First level sections should start on a
new page, regardless of where you are in the previous page
i. Your first level heading should be centered in the top line of the
page, it should be bolded and in all caps – SECTION 3:
INDIVIDUAL REFLECTIONS
b. Your subsections are left adjusted, bolded, and in title case. Your
subsections will be each member of your group – Group Member’s Name i. For this section only, you should start each group member
subsection on its own page
c. For each group member, you will have 3 third level sub sections. Third
level sub sections are left justified, italicized, and in title case
Surprises from En-Roads
Feelings
Hope & Personal Action
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6. Section 4
You are back to a first level heading. First level sections should start on anew page, regardless of where you are in the previous pageYour first level heading should be centered in the top line of thepage, it should be bolded and in all caps – SECTION 4:ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
It is possible that you will not have a section 4 if you do not haveany items to include in it
Your subsections are left adjusted, bolded, and in title case. Your firstsubsection is References
i. If you do not have any references, then you will not have this
section
c. Your second subsection is the Appendix
If you have additional graphs, tables, or figures that you would like to include in your submission – besides the 3 that go in Section 1 – then you would include them here
This section is not mandatory and it is possible that you will not have anything to include here